Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|University College Cork|
|EAE Business School|
|London School of Economics and Political Science|
|University of Lugano|
|University of Amsterdam|
|Andrássy Universität Budapest (AUB)|
|Sheffield Hallam University|
|Edinburgh Napier University|
|Glasgow Caledonian University|
|University of Edinburgh|
|Newcastle University Business School|
|Ferrières Hotel Management School|
|Jacobs University Bremen|
|University of Reading|
|University of Essex|
|University of Antwerp|
|HECTOR School of Engineering & Management|
|University of Southern Denmark (SDU)|
|LE CNAM - Conservatoire national des arts et métiers|
|Steinbeis School of Management and Innovation (SMI)|
|University of St. Gallen|
|Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz|
|Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences|
|University of Aberdeen|
|Mid Sweden University|
|Universität des Saarlandes|
|Bergische Universität Wuppertal|
|Universität für Bodenkultur Wien|
|School of Advanced Study|
|University of Lincoln|
|University of Wroclaw|
|University of Leeds|
|Inholland University of Applied Sciences|
|Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg|
|IHTTI School of Hotel Management (Swiss Education Group)|
|Curtin University Australia|
|Erasmus Universität Rotterdam|
|Technical University of Denmark|
|Shanghai Jiao Tong University|
|Folkwang Universität der Künste Essen|