Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|University of Amsterdam|
|University of Antwerp|
|Andrássy Universität Budapest (AUB)|
|University of Southern Denmark (SDU)|
|Glasgow Caledonian University|
|Newcastle University Business School|
|Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam|
|Ferrières Hotel Management School|
|London School of Economics and Political Science|
|Jacobs University Bremen|
|University of Lugano|
|EAE Business School|
|Anglia Ruskin University|
|University of Edinburgh|
|ETH - Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich|
|University of Essex|
|University of Birmingham|
|Queen Margaret University|
|Universidad de Navarra|
|Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien|
|Leibniz Universität Hannover - Studiengänge an der Fakultät für Maschinenbau|
|Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU)|
|University of Tasmania|
|LIMAK Austrian Business School|
|Queensland University of Technology|
|Middle East Technical University (METU)|
|Ostravská univerzita v Ostravě|
|Willy Brandt School of Public Policy - Universität Erfurt|
|Universidade de Aveiro|
|ENSAI - National School for Statistics and Data Analysis in France|
|Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main|
|University of Cumbria|
|Buckinghamshire New University|
|Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder)|
|Universidade Católica Portuguesa|
|Technische Universität Dresden|
|DUW Institut für Weiterbildung|
|University of Hull|
|Centre for European Studies Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego|
|Université libre de Bruxelles|