Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|London School of Economics and Political Science|
|University of Lugano|
|Glasgow Caledonian University|
|Anglia Ruskin University|
|Andrássy Universität Budapest (AUB)|
|University of Essex|
|Newcastle University Business School|
|Sheffield Hallam University|
|EAE Business School|
|Jacobs University Bremen|
|University College Cork|
|University of Amsterdam|
|Ferrières Hotel Management School|
|University of Antwerp|
|University of Edinburgh|
|University of Southern Denmark (SDU)|
|UPF Barcelona School of Management|
|Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu|
|Università di Pisa|
|Medizinische Universität Wien|
|Frankfurt School of Finance & Management|
|Universidade Nova de Lisboa|
|Vrije Universiteit Brussel|
|Technische Universität Ilmenau|
|Universität Siegen Business School|
|University of South Wales|
|University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh|
|Univerzita Hradec Králové|
|Mendelova univerzita v Brně|
|Ekonomická univerzita v Bratislave|
|Middle East Technical University (METU)|
|Schweizer Hochschule für Landwirtschaft|
|University of Technology Sydney (UTS)|
|Universite de Neuchatel|
|Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel|
|DIU Dresden International University|