Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|Andrássy Universität Budapest (AUB)|
|University of Edinburgh|
|Glasgow Caledonian University|
|Jacobs University Bremen|
|HECTOR School of Engineering & Management|
|Ferrières Hotel Management School|
|University of Amsterdam|
|London School of Economics and Political Science|
|University of Reading|
|University of Antwerp|
|EAE Business School|
|University of Lugano|
|University of Southern Denmark (SDU)|
|University College Cork|
|Anglia Ruskin University|
|University of Essex|
|Sheffield Hallam University|
|Newcastle University Business School|
|Anton Bruckner Privatuniversität Oberösterreich|
|University of Roehampton|
|Universitat Ramon Llull|
|The University of Buckingham|
|České vysoké učení technické v Praze|
|Leuphana Universität Lüneburg|
|Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien|
|University of Derby|
|NEOMA Business School|
|DIU Dresden International University|
|The University of Melbourne|
|TU Braunschweig - Fakultät für Maschinenbau|
|KTH Royal Institute of Technology|
|University of Chichester|
|Université Catholique de Louvain|
|FernUniversität in Hagen|
|Západočeská univerzita v Plzni|
|De Montfort University|
|Royal College of Art|