Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|University of Warwick - WMG|
|HECTOR School of Engineering & Management|
|University of Antwerp|
|University of Birmingham|
|London Metropolitan University|
|UPF Barcelona School of Management|
|EAE Business School|
|London School of Economics and Political Science - Department of Management|
|Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University|
|ESERP Business School|
|University of Southern Denmark (SDU)|
|Barcelona Graduate School of Economics|
|Newcastle University Business School|
|Andrássy Universität Budapest (AUB)|
|Università della Svizzera italiana (USI)|
|Jacobs University Bremen|
|EPFL - École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne|
|Coventry University London|
|University of Wroclaw|
|Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien|
|Protestantse Theologische Universiteit|
|Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie|
|DUW Institut für Weiterbildung|
|Medical University Pleven|
|Regent's University London|
|Willy Brandt School of Public Policy - Universität Erfurt|
|Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya|
|Slezská univerzita v Opavě|
|TU Bergakademie Freiberg|
|The University of Newcastle|
|Buckinghamshire New University|
|London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine|
|Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg|
|Université du Luxembourg|
|Technische Universität Wien|
|Schiller International University|
|University of Tasmania|
|Akademie der Bildenden Künste (AkdBK) Stuttgart|
|MIP Politecnico di Milano|