Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|Luxembourg School of Business|
|University College Dublin|
|University College Cork|
|ESCP Business School|
|KMU Akademie & Management AG|
|Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam|
|Hult International Business School|
|Theologische Hochschule Friedensau|
|Mid Sweden University|
|TUM School of Management Heilbronn|
|University of Limerick|
|University of Groningen|
|UNI for LIFE|
|National University of Ireland|
|University of Antwerp|
|ESIC Business & Marketing School|
|Nyenrode Business Universiteit|
|Alexandru Ioan Cuza University - Centre for European Studies|
|Otto-von-Guericke Business School Magdeburg GmbH|
|Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego|
|TU Bergakademie Freiberg|
|University of Hull|
|WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management|
|Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Salzburg|
|Universidade de Aveiro|
|Universität für Musik und Darstellende Kunst Graz|
|Leibniz Universität Hannover - Studiengänge an der Fakultät für Maschinenbau|
|Royal Holloway, University of London|
|Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz|
|Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen - Graduate Training Centre of Neuroscience|
|LE CNAM - Conservatoire national des arts et métiers|
|ESSEC Business School|
|Sofia University "St.Kliment Ohridski"|
|University of Chester|
|National University of Arts Bucharest|
|Limerick Institute of Technology|
|Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte|
|Royal Veterinary College|
|University of the Western Sydney|
|Akademia Morska w Szczecinie|
|International Hellenic University|