Universities are the oldest institutions for higher education. They originate from the XII century. The first ones were established in Europe - University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris, University of Oxford, University of Modena. The name comes from Latin – "universita" and means community, cooperation (universitas magistrorum et scholarium – community of scholars and teachers). Many historians believe that these communities probably grew out from the catholic schools, where the classes were taught by nuns and monks.
From the XII century on, many more universities were founded in Europe and all over the world. University buildings became remarkable signs of European cities. Some of them are built as campuses and provide accommodations for students.
Modern universities in Europe have diverse teaching methods. While German universities, for example, follow the Humboldtian model and place importance on seminars, communication freedom and scholar’s involvement in the teaching process, the French ones are stricter and more narrative.
Although, the most common teaching forms at the European universities are lectures, seminars, research, internships, exams and final thesis.
As nowadays there are several types of higher education institutions different than the traditional universities - Business School, University of Applied Sciences, College, University of Technology and etc., there are significant classification criteria that vary by country.
However, universities differentiate by their sponsorship and foundation – there are private, public and national universities. The private ones are not funded by government, but independently or by donations.
Their tuition fees are usually higher than the public and national ones. Public universities are sponsored by state or municipality, whereby the national (or state) one may also belong to this group – all depends on the country’s law.
As a general rule, most of the universities offer undergraduate (Bachelor) and postgraduate studies (Master and Doctorate). There are also other types like Integrated Master (longer Bachelors study awarded with a Master degree). Most of the degree types in Europe are similar, but the degree titles also vary by country, though.
|Barcelona Graduate School of Economics|
|Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam|
|University of Tartu|
|Leuphana Universität Lüneburg|
|University of Southern Denmark (SDU)|
|Andrássy Universität Budapest (AUB)|
|ESERP Business School|
|Theologische Hochschule Friedensau|
|EAE Business School|
|University of Birmingham|
|Newcastle University Business School|
|University of Warwick - WMG|
|Institute for Law and Finance|
|Hult International Business School|
|CUHK Business School|
|University of Antwerp|
|Hertie School of Governance|
|Universidade do Minho|
|Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel|
|University of Reading|
|Birkbeck, University of London|
|Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu|
|Steinbeis School of International Business and Entrepreneurship (SIBE) der Steinbeis-Hochschule Berlin|
|Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) München|
|Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien|
|Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte|
|Católica Lisbon School of Business and Economics|
|University of Cambridge|
|Université de Strasbourg|
|University College Cork|
|Filmuniversität Babelsberg KONRAD WOLF|
|Universität Wien Postgraduate Center|
|HafenCity Universität Hamburg|
|Sacred Heart University|
|University of Tasmania|
|International University of Monaco|
|EU Business School|
|University of Manchester|
|Leuphana Professional School|
|St Theresa International College|
|University of Copenhagen|
|Massey University of New Zealand|